On July 29,2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved of the refurbished National Education Policy. The policy is based on the Draft National Education Policy 2019, which the Committee for Draft National Education Policy — chaired by Dr. K. Kasturirangan, former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization — submitted to the Ministry of Human Resource Development on December 15, 2018.
The four-part National Education Policy covers school education (Part I); higher education (Part II); ‘Other Key Areas of Focus’ (Part III) such as adult education, promoting Indian languages and online education; and ‘Making it Happen’ (Part IV), which discusses the policy’s implementation.
Clauses of the National Education Policy
- The policy seeks to restructure school curricula and pedagogy in a new ‘5+3+3+4’ design, so that school education can be made relevant to the needs and interests of learners at different developmental stages — a ‘Foundational Stage’ (five years), a ‘Preparatory Stage’ (three years), a ‘Middle Stage’ (three years) and the ‘High Stage’ (four years, covering grades nine, 10, 11 and 12).
- It aims to achieve ‘universal foundational literacy and numeracy’ in primary schools by 2025. For this, the Ministry of Human Resource Development shall set up a National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy.
- Public and private schools — except the schools that are managed, aided or controlled, by the central government — will be assessed and accredited on the same criteria, benchmarks, and processes.
- The Gross Enrolment Ratio from preschool to secondary education should be 100 percent by 2030. (GER is defined as the ratio of the total enrolment in education — regardless of age — to the official population in a given school year, expressed as a percentage.) The policy states that universal participation in schools shall be achieved by tracking students and their learning levels to ensure they are enrolled and attending school, and have suitable opportunities to re-join or catch up at school in case they have dropped out or fallen behind.
- The medium of expression until at least grade five — but preferably till grade eight or beyond — shall be the student’s mother tongue or the local or regional language. The ‘three-language formula’ will continue to be implemented in schools, where two of the three languages shall be native to India.
- The policy seeks to standardize the school curriculum for Indian Sign Language across the country.
- The government of India shall constitute a ‘Gender-Inclusion Fund’ to provide equitable and quality education to all girls and transgender students. States shall use this fund to implement the central government’s policies for assisting female and transgender students, such as provisions for toilets and sanitation, conditional cash transfers, and bicycles. The fund will enable states to support ‘community-based’ interventions.
- The policy suggests establishing ‘school complexes’ consisting of a secondary school and other schools offering lower grades of education — including Anganwadi centers — in a radius of 5 to 10 kilometers. Such a complex will have “greater resource efficiency and more effective functioning, coordination, leadership, governance, and management of schools in a cluster.”
- All education institutions shall be held to similar standards of audit and disclosure as a ‘not-for-profit’ entity, says this policy. If the institution generates a surplus, it shall be reinvested in the educational sector.
- The policy says that all ‘higher education institutions’ (HEIs) shall aim to be multidisciplinary by 2040. By 2030, there shall be at least one multidisciplinary HEI in or near every district. The policy aims for the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education to increase to 50 percent per percent by 2035 from 26.3 percent in 2018.
- HEIs shall have the flexibility to offer Master’s programs of two years for those who have completed a three-year undergraduate program, of one year for students who have completed a four-year undergraduate program, or five-year integrated Bachelor’s and Master’s programs.
- M.Phil. programs shall be discontinued.
- The policy says that ‘high performing’ Indian universities shall be encouraged to set up campuses in other countries. Similarly, selected universities — such as those from among the top 100 universities in the world — shall be encouraged to operate in India.
- A National Research Foundation shall be established to facilitate “merit-based but equitable” peer-reviewed research funding.
- The policy says that the center and states shall work together to increase public investment in education to 6 percent of the gross domestic product, from the current 4.43 percent.
STEM Education in Schools
There is an assortment of manners by which instructors can bring STEM into the classroom. This example STEM exercise plan furnishes instructors with a bit by bit control over the most proficient method to appropriately acquaint the idea with their understudies. It includes a video exercise at that point that permits understudies to build up their STEM exercise.
When instructors acquaint STEM training with their understudies, they can dissect their study hall and decide how STEM ventures and exercises can be joined into it. Homeroom set-up for STEM classes is key with regards to executing undertakings and exercises. Execution thoughts incorporate the accompanying:
- Work areas and other furniture ought to be masterminded to permit understudies’ greatest adaptability when chipping away at STEM ventures and exercises. This can mean huge walkways between work areas or making workstations dependent on the specific undertaking or movement.
- Cooperation is a significant part of any STEM task or movement. The homeroom ought to be organized with the goal that it empowers understudies to cooperate, for example, bunches of seats.
- Visual backings, for example, diagrams and banners, can be key in helping understudies recollect key ideas.
STEM ventures and exercises for basic to center school understudies can incorporate tangible water bottles, an extension building challenge, or building a fountain of liquid magma.
Instructors at the secondary school level can execute ventures that include the entirety of the STEM fields. One such venture would be a water quality review where understudies would use submerged robots to gather information from a waterway. Instructors have the choice for understudies to plan their robots or use bought packs.
STEM for elementary level
STEM training needs to start in elementary schools and should expect to get ready youngsters for dynamic cooperation in their future. To deliver an age intrigued and gifted in STEM, the key foci inside schools may best happen through groups of educators cooperating in an incorporated methodology, in light of cross-curricular instructing and learning. Instructors assume a key function in STEM training, and it is imperative to pull in high achievers with applicable foundations into educating. This examination study zeroed in on the convictions, understandings, and goals of pre-administration essential instructors to educate STEM. These convictions, understandings, and goals structure the stage on which the pre-administration instructors manufacture their ability to train STEM subjects in elementary schools.
pre-administration educators don’t have solid seeing; in any case, they have solid convictions and expectations to show STEM in their future profession. The aftereffects of this investigation demonstrate that the limit they have assembled gives them unequivocal perspectives on the most proficient method to show STEM in grade schools now and illuminates what they require for the future educating of STEM. It is fundamental to plan course work and expert improvement in STEM, fit for coordinating controls, giving comprehension of instructive methodologies, and interfacing with genuine pertinence with the twenty-first-century abilities.
STEM for Secondary Level
Science is wherever in our general surroundings. Technology is consistently venturing into each part of our lives. Engineering is the fundamental plan of streets and scaffolds, yet also, handles the difficulties of changing worldwide climate and ecologically neighborly changes to our home. Mathematics is in each occupation, each action we do in our lives. By presenting understudies to STEM and giving them chances to investigate STEM-related ideas, they will build up an enthusiasm for it and ideally seek after an occupation in a STEM field. An educational program that is STEM-based has genuine circumstances to enable the understudy to learn. Projects like Designing For Children incorporates various classes to give chances to perceive how ideas identify with life to ideally start enthusiasm for a future profession in a STEM field. STEM exercises give hands-on and minds-on exercises for the understudy. Making math and science both fun and intriguing causes the understudy to do considerably more than simply learn.
STEM instruction assists with spanning the ethnic and sex holes now and then found in math and science fields. Activities have been built up to build the functions of ladies and minorities in STEM-related fields. STEM training breaks the conventional sexual orientation jobs. To contend in a worldwide economy, STEM training and vocations must be a public need. Every single choice made uses a part of STEM to comprehend the suggestions.
Taking everything into account, STEM instruction is basic to enable the US to stay a world chief. If STEM instruction isn’t improved, the US will keep on falling in world positioning with math and science scores and won’t have the option to keep up its worldwide position. STEM training in amore than a class to wrap up. Having exercises that show genuine ramifications of STEM can arrange the thoughts introduced in school and help to show how they advantage our general public and even our reality overall. Kids can see that what they are realizing now is relevant to their future and the eventual fate of the entire world, making a premium frequently deficient with regards to when learning new ideas that don’t appear to convey genuine application. Designing For Children, for instance, offers a set-up of STEM enhancement programs for youngsters ages 4 to 14.